Urban environmental noise pollution has really affected the quality of life and it is a serious health and social problem. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of noise pollution in Lagos State. Lagos is a huge metropolis which originated on islands separated by creeks such as Lagos Island that fringe the southwest mouth of Lagos Lagoon protected from the Atlantic Ocean by long sand spits such as Bar Beach which stretch up to 100 km east and west of the mouth.
Lagos was originally inhabited by the Awori subgroup of the Yoruba People. Under the leadership of their Olofin, the Awori moved to an island now called Iddo and then to the larger Lagos Island. Lagos is the smallest state in Nigeria in terms of land area but the second most populous state and arguably the economically important state of Nigeria. The urban environmental noise pollution simply entails all that makes the urban center not to be conducive for living and makes the environment to be unhealthy for a living.
In spite of the extensive generation of noise in urban areas of Nigeria, surprisingly little research and documentation exist on the nature and extent of noise generation activities, their accompanying impacts and the implication for urban communities and their residents. In recent years, noise has been identified in the developed countries as a regrettable but necessary fact of city life.
The above observation is no less true of Nigerian urban life. Increasingly, urban noise is getting louder and more pervasive, prompting public comments and few noise abatement regulations. It was observed however that these regulations have failed to curb noise. Noise is also seen as a sound which is not wanted by the recipients, it is clear that what may be a pleasant and enjoyable sound to one person may not be to another person.
Sources and Causes of Noise Pollution in Lagos Environmental Area
Road Traffic: This consists of road users including pedestrians, herded animals, vehicles, buses, and other conveyances, either singly or together, while using the public way for purposes of travel. Traffic laws are the laws which govern traffic and regulate vehicles, while rules of the road are both the laws and the informal rules that may have developed over time to ease the orderly and timely flow of traffic.
Traffic is often classified by type; heavy motor vehicle (e.g., car, truck), another vehicle (e.g., moped, bicycle), and pedestrian. Different classes may share speed limits and easement or may be segregated. Some jurisdictions may have very detailed and complex rules of the road while others rely more on drivers’ common sense and willingness to coöperate.
Industrial Activities: This is where companies employees take part in and/or is a member of an industrial organization or industrial association. It also refers to their refusal to join and/or take part in such an organization. An industrial organization includes an organization of employees such as a trade union, an association of employers such as a local chamber of manufacturers or any other group established for people in a particular industry, trade, profession or business.
Entertainment Activities: This is the form of activity that holds the attention and interest of an audience, or gives pleasure and delight. It can be an idea or a task but is more likely to be one of the activities or events that have developed over thousands of years specifically for keeping an audience’s attention.
The process has been accelerated in modern times by an entertainment industry that records and sells entertainment products. Entertainment evolves and can be adapted to suit any scale, ranging from a person who chooses a private entertainment from a now enormous array of pre-recorded products; to a banquet adapted for two; to any size or type of party, with proper music and dance; to performances intended for thousands; and even for a global audience.
Street Advertisement: is the promotion of products and services in an unconventional way in public places. The main function of street advertisement is that the activities are done exclusively on the streets. The ambient advertisement uses other public places, such as shopping centers. Unlike typical public marketing campaigns that use billboards, street advertisement involves the application of multiple techniques and practices to set up direct contact with the customers.
It is also a method used by many businesses to promote their products is to distribute fliers, which sends a message to customers to allow them to look at what they are trying to sell to their consumers. However, in today’s society, there are many more techniques which catch the attention of customers such as billboards, TV ads, Ads on the back of public transport and so on.
Effects of Noise on the residents of Lagos State
Disturbance to Sleep: It has been argued by a scholar that a general bodily reaction to noise often contributes to feelings of fatigues, irritability, or tension. Disturbance to sleep can, in turn, result in muscular tension, diminished work effectiveness, and slower reaction time.
Interference with Communication and Productivity: Noise has been established to be an unambiguously interferes with both communication and productivity. Amongst the specific disorder reportedly suffered from exposure to noise were a headache, lack of concentration, dizziness, and nervousness.
Cardiovascular and Gastric Impacts: A practitioner has found out that sudden noise automatically causes constriction of peripheral blood vessels (in toes, fingers, and abdominal muscles). Sometimes, it causes dilation of blood vessels in the retina and the brain. Marked gastric alteration similarly occurs on exposure to sudden and unexpected noise.
Hearing Loss: Another practitioner has also asserted that noise impairs people hearing. He explains that a medical examination of anyone who is continuously exposed to sounds like those coming from car-horns, loudspeakers, and air crafts will show that the person will definitely have impaired hearing.