The federal road safety corps is the agency responsible for road safety administration in Nigeria. The main mission of the federal road safety corps in the country is to reduce road crash deaths and injuries by 50%. The federal road safety corps statutory functions include: Making the highways safe for motorists and other road users as well as checking the roadworthiness of vehicles, recommending works and infrastructures to eliminate or reduce accidents on the highways and educating motorists and members of the public on the importance of road discipline on the highways.
The functions of the federal road safety corps generally relate to Making the highway safe for motorists and other road users. Recommending works and devices designed to eliminate or reduce accidents on the highways and advising the Federal and State Governments including the Federal Capital Territory Administration and relevant governmental agencies on the localities where such works and devices are required. In particular, the federal road safety corps is charged with the responsibilities for: Preventing or minimizing accidents on the highway; Clearing obstructions on any part of the highways; Educating drivers, motorists and other members of the public generally.
Federal Road Safety Corps Full Responsibilities
– Preventing or minimizing accidents on the highway;
– Clearing obstructions on any part of the highways;
– Educating drivers, motorists and other members of the public generally on the proper use of the highways;
– Designing and producing the driver’s license to be used by various categories of vehicle operators;
– Determining, from time to time, the requirements to be satisfied by an applicant for a driver’s licence;
– Designing and producing vehicle number plates
– The standardization of highway traffic codes;
– Giving prompt attention and care to victims of accidents
– Conducting researches into the causes of motor accidents and methods of preventing them and putting into use the result of such researchers;
– Determining and enforcing speed limits for all categories of roads and vehicles and controlling the use of speed limiting devices;
– Cooperating with bodies or agencies or groups in road safety activities or in the prevention of accidents on the highways;
– Making regulations in pursuance of any of the functions assigned to the Corps by or under this Act.
– Regulating the use of sirens, flashers and beacon lights on vehicles other than ambulances and vehicles belonging to the Armed Forces, Nigeria Police, Fire Service and other Para-military agencies;
– Providing roadside and mobile clinics for the treatment of accident victims free of charge;
– Regulating the use of mobile phones by motorists;
– Regulating the use of seat belts and other safety devices;
– Regulating the use of motorcycles on the highway;
– Maintaining the validity period for drivers’ licences which shall be three years subject to renewal at the expiration of the validity period
Definition of Federal Road Safety Corps Terms
Penalty Points: These are Points allotted to traffic offences accumulated in the driver’s record. If a driver receives a statutorily maximum number of points, the driver shall be warned and or have his licence suspended or withdrawn.
Fine: Is payment of a sum of money made to satisfy a claim of an offence committed as a penalty.
Warning: Is notification issued to a traffic offender who has accumulated 10–14 penalty points.
Suspension: Is the temporal removal or interruption of authority or right to drive a vehicle or ride a motorcycle/tricycle, as a punishment for a period of time, having accumulated 15 to 20 penalty points.
Withdrawal: The act or condition of taking away the authority or the denial of the right to drive a motor vehicle or ride a motorcycle/tricycle on Nigeria roads, having accumulated 21 and above penalty points.
Use of Notice of Offence Sheet: The Notice of Offence sheet is issued by a Road Marshal to a traffic offender who has violated any of the Road Traffic Laws and Regulations. It is a legal document and as such should be properly understood and filled, as it may be tendered in the law court for prosecution purposes.
Interpretation of Federal Road Safety Corps Offences, their Categories, Definitions, Penalties and Penalty Points
Assaulting marshal on Duty (AMD) 10pts/N10,000: Manhandling a Road Marshal in the course of his lawful duties. This offence may attract prosecution in a law court.
Attempting to Corrupt Marshal on Duty (ACS) 10pts/N10,000: Offering bribe (monetary or material) to Road Marshal(s) by traffic offender(s) in order to pervert the course of justice. This offence may attract prosecution in a court of law.
Caution Sign Violation (CSV) 3pts/N3,000: Failure to display the C-caution sign at the front and the rear of the vehicle in the case of a broken down vehicle. In addition, failure to put in place a red light at the rear of the vehicle at night.
Construction Area Speed Limit Violation (CAV) 3 pts/N3,000: Failure to adhere to speed limits posted at construction sites.
Dangerous Driving (DGG) 10pts/N50, 000: Driving in a manner that is reckless and poses threats to the lives of the driver and other road users e.g. forcing other vehicles or other road users off the road or engaging in acts that could easily result in crashes or driving at high speed in places of high pedestrian traffic.
Do Not Move Violation (DNM) 2pts/N2, 000: Driving a vehicle on which ‘DO NOT MOVE’ sticker has been posted indicating that the vehicle’s movement has been restricted. Examples of the vehicle(s) on which ‘DO NOT MOVE’ sticker may be pasted are;
– A rickety vehicle.
– Vehicle awaiting towing.
– The vehicle suspected to be stolen.
Driver’s Licence Violation (DLV) 10pts/N10,000: Driving without being in physical possession of a valid Driver’s Licence for the category of vehicle being driven. The classes of Driver’s Licence
are as follows:-
Class A – Motorcycle
Class B – Motor vehicle of fewer than 3 tonnes gross weight other than a motorcycle, taxi, stage carriage or omnibus.
Class C – The motor vehicle of fewer than 3 tonnes gross weight, other than a motorcycle.
Class D – Motor vehicle other than a motorcycle, taxi, stage carriage or omnibus but excluding an articulated vehicle or vehicle drawing a trailer, agricultural machines and tractors and earth-moving vehicles.
Class E – Motor vehicle other than a motorcycle, articulated vehicle, agricultural machines, tractors and earth-moving vehicles.
Class F – Agricultural machines and tractors.
Class G – Earthmoving vehicles
Class J – Special, for physically handicapped persons.
Driving Under Alcohol/Drug Influence: (DUI) 5pts/N5, 000: Driving under the influence of alcohol, drugs or other psychotropic substance.
Driving WIth Worn Out Tyre: (TYV) 3pts/N3, 000: Driving a vehicle with tyres which threading are worn-out.
Driving With Expired/WIthout Spare Tyre 2 pts/N2, 000: Driving a vehicle with tyre(s) which by its date of manufacturing has expired or without a spare tyre.
Excessive Smoke Emission (ESE) 5pts/N5, 000: Driving a vehicle with smoke emission, capable of blurring the vision of other road users.
Failure to Cover Unstable Materials 5pts/N5, 000: Failure to cover securely unstable materials such as gravel, sand, refuse, etc. which are capable of spilling on the highway thereby constituting hazards.
Failure to Fix Red Flag on Projected Load (FFF) 3pts/N3,000: Driving a vehicle with a projected load in excess of 2.8m without adequate warning, i.e. a red flag fixed at the end of the projected load in the daytime and a red warning light at night.
Failure to Move Over(FMO) 3pts/N3, 000: In the case of slow-moving vehicles on a single carriageway, failure to move out of the road when at least four vehicles have queued behind. In addition, on a dual carriageway, failure to move over to the slow lane for other road users moving at a higher speed to pass or failure to adhere to a traffic officer’s instruction.
Failure to Report Road Crash (FRC) 10 pts/N20, 000: A driver who is involved in a crash or sees a crash, but fails to report the crash to FRSC and/or other appropriate authorities shall be held liable for an offence of failure to report road crash.
Fire Extinguisher Violation (FEV) N3, 000: Driving a vehicle without the appropriate category of Fire Extinguisher specified for the type of vehicle or with expired Fire Extinguisher.
Inadequate Construction Warning Sign (ICW) N50, 000: Failure of a road construction company to provide adequate warning and/or directional/diversion signs at road repairs or road construction sites.
Light/Sign Violation (LSV) 2 pts/N2, 000: Failure to use headlights, rear lights between 1900hrs and 0630hrs or when it is dark while on the highway or failure to use directional signal indicators when required to do so or non-observance of a traffic light.
Medical Personnel/Hospital Rejection of Road Crash Victim (RCV) N50, 000: Hospital or Medical personnel refusal to accept and administer treatment on Road Crash survivors or accept corpse(s) of the victim(s).
Operating Mechanically Deficient Vehicle (MDV) 5 pts/N5, 000: Being on the highway with a mechanically deficient vehicle, such as emits dark fumes that impair vision, driving a vehicle with bent chassis, driving a damaged vehicle, etc. This offence may attract prosecution and may have to be validated with a vehicle inspection report before a court trial.
Obstructing Marshal On Duty (OMD) 3 pts/N3, 000: Interference and willful disruption/obstruction of Road Marshal while carrying out his lawful duty.
Operating a Vehicle with Forged Documents (OFD) 10 pts/N10, 000: Driving while being in the possession of forged or fake driver’s licence or vehicle registration documents.
Overloading (OLV) 10 pts/N10, 000: Driving on the highway with a vehicle loaded with passengers or goods over the prescribed number or weight, respectively.
Passengers’ Manifest Violation (PMV) 10 pts/N10, 000: Driving a commercial vehicle on an interstate journey on the highway without a detailed copy of the Passengers’ Manifest (that is, the list of passengers in a vehicle, contact address, destination, next of kin and phone number).
Riding Motorcycle Without Using Crash Helmet (RMH) 2 pts/N2, 000: Riding a motorcycle without a crash helmet(s) properly strapped to the head and fastened under the chin by both the rider and passenger.
Road Obstruction (ROB) 5 pts/N5, 000: Obstructing the highway by indiscriminate parking or repair of broken-down vehicles on the road or obstructing the highway with any other object, or stopping on the highway in a manner that inhibit free traffic flow at any point in time or endangers the life of the driver and/or other road users.
Road Marking Violation (RMV) 5 pts/N5, 000: Failure to observe road markings, regulatory, prohibitory or mandatory road traffic signs.
Route Violation (RTV) 10 pts/N10, 000: Contravention of the provision of any traffic law or regulation relating to directions and routes to be followed by vehicles e.g. facing on-coming vehicles or plying route prohibited for certain categories of vehicles.
Seatbelt Use Violation (SUV) 5 pts/N5, 000: Driving a vehicle without using Seat Belt and/or without ensuring that other passengers in the vehicle use Seatbelts.
Speed Limit Violation (SLV) 5 pts/N5, 000: Driving a vehicle or riding a motorcycle/tricycle on the highway in excess of the prescribed speed limits for a category of vehicle or road. Maximum speed limits for different categories of motor vehicles are as follows:
Federal Road Safety Corps Speed Limited for Vehicles in Km/hr
Unauthorized Removal/Tampering with Road Signs (UTS) 5pts/N5, 000: Removing or tampering with any road sign(s) or indicator(s) which is or are meant to direct, warn, prohibit or caution road users.
Underage Driving/Riding (UDR) N10, 000: Driving a motor vehicle and riding a motorcycle before attaining the age of 18yrs.
Use of Phone While Driving (UPD) 4pts/N4, 000: Driving or riding a vehicle while making use of the phone even at traffic hold up. This also applies to the use of hands-free devices.
Vehicle License Violation (VLV) 3pts/ N3, 000: Driving or riding a vehicle with an expired licence or not being in possession of one.
Number Plate Violation (NPV) 3pts/ N3, 000: Driving a vehicle without Number Plates, use of fake Number Plates, covering the Number Plates, using mutilated Number plates, expired Number Plates or failure to display Number Plates appropriately.
Vehicle Windshield Violation (WSV) 2pts/ N3, 000: Operating a motor vehicle without a windscreen(s) or with damaged windscreen(s).
Wrongful Overtaking (WOV) 3pts/ N3, 000: Overtaking a vehicle when it is not safe or legal to do so thereby endangering the life of the driver, and/or passenger(s) and other road users, e.g. at brow of a hill, a bend, on narrow bridge, built-up areas, crowded road, intersection, bus-stop etc.
Projected Load in Excess of Prescribed Limit (PLE) 3 pts/N3, 000: Driving a Vehicle with projected or outsized load(s) which is /are not contained within the permissible overall dimension of the vehicle.
Vehicle Mirror Violation (VMV) 3 pts/N3, 000: Driving a vehicle without the inner and/or the two side mirrors or driving with a damaged mirror(s).
Learners Driving Regulation Violation (LDV) 10 pts/N3, 000: A learner driving a vehicle without being accompanied by a licenced driver-instructor sitting beside him or failing to take a driving test before the expiration of his third Learner’s Permit or takes a test and failed or drives a vehicle with passenger(s) onboard or drives on an expressway.
Child Restraint Violation (CRV) 6 pts/N3, 000: Carrying a child under the age of 12yrs in a vehicle without the use of a child’s car seat or carrying a child in a child car seat without the child car seat being properly fitted and the child strapped in the car seat. The followings are categories of child restraint according to the weight of the children for whom they are suitable; Child Sitting Position Violation (CPV) 6 pts/N3, 000.Category: Carrying a child under the age of 12 years in the front seat of a vehicle.
Driving Right-Hand Steering Vehicle (DRV) 10 pts/N3, 000: Driving a vehicle which steering is on the right-hand side.
Other Offences Violation: Any other offence(s) not categorised under the offences listed in the Notice of Offence Sheet.
Federal Road Safety Corps 38 Traffic Violation Fines
Notice of offence sheet by section 10(4), 28(2) of federal road safety corps (establishment) act 2007 and regulation 220 of NRTR, 2012. Do you wish to waive your right to a court trial? Yes or No. If Yes, please pay the prescribed fine(s) into Federal Government Revenue Account in any of the commercial Banks or online using Remita platform accessible through www.remita.net (select “Pay FG Agency; Select federal road safety corps (FRSC) under MDAs; select “Offences” to pay for fines. Complete the other mandatory fields as applicable). Bring the teller/printout to the federal road safety corps (FRSC) office where the booking was made.
An urban business area is the commercial and business
Cities with strong preservation laws and maximum building height restrictions to retain the character of the historic and cultural core will have an urban business area quite a distance from the centre of the city. In cities in the New World that grew quickly after the invention of mechanised modes such as road or rail transport, a single central area or downtown will often contain most of the region’s tallest buildings and act both as the urban business area and the commercial and cultural city center.
Examination of Parking and Traffic Congestion Problems in Urban Business Area
Parking and traffic congestion is synonymous to each other because failure to meet parking demand of people in a city always lead to on-street parking that results to traffic congestion. Traffic congestion is a condition on road networks that occurs as use increases, and is characterized by slower speeds, longer trip times, and increased vehicular queuing. The availability of less space in urban areas has increased demand for parking space especially in central business area.
The inadequate off-street parking in most of the urban business area has metamorphosed to the problem of on-street parking coupled with inadequate traffic management commonly experienced today in most cities. Finding revealed that inadequate parking, infectiveness of traffic devices, absences of loading and offloading bays etc have caused on-street parking and traffic congestion in most urban business area.
To reduce the menace, policy measures are recommended among which are; institution of enforcement of traffic rules and regulations by disciplined law enforcement agents, relocation of certain activities that caused on-street parking and introduction of intelligent transport system, traffic management improvement and provision of off-street parking facilities in the city plan.
Solutions to Urban Business Area Traffic and Parking Problems
Traffic congestion means there are more vehicles trying to use a given road facility than it can handle- without exceeding acceptable levels of delay or inconvenience. The demand for road space arises from the universally observed desire of individuals to own and use a motor vehicle. As incomes increase and technological advancements reduce the real cost of producing a motor vehicle, more and more persons find the financial means for owning and using a motor vehicle.
Motor vehicles do not come without their share of physical and environmental limitations. A motor vehicle in the first instance requires road space to operate freely, parking spaces at residences and work places. Increase of motor vehicles (the demand) often outstrips the provision of road space (the supply) in many urban business area. The result is traffic congestion.
Traffic congestion may be considered a problem, by many, they often fail to see the extent of its impact on the community and country. These impacts could be further discussed as
A good transportation system is an important selling point to communities that desire to attract development that provides for employment and growth of a city. If transport costs due to congestion increase, goods and services produced within that city tend to increase in costs thus losing competitiveness in international markets. Efficient transportation access is therefore a very important consideration as it has a direct impact on sound and sustainable economic growth and productivity.
Quality of Life
To some people, congested highways are a symptom of deteriorating quality-of-life-in a community. The amount of time that is spent on commuting to and from work is also in reality, time that is taken away from social interactions or pursuit of activities that have a personal value and satisfaction.
Congested road conditions can have a detrimental effect on the environment, in particular air quality and noise pollution. Congestion arises due to increase vehicles on the road. Ironically this is the time when there are the most number of people on the roads as well. This means that many more people become vulnerable to respiratory diseases such as asthma -widely prevalent today.
Anti- Social Behavior
Increasing social problems referred to as Highway Rage (or Road Rage) experienced in many countries where drivers show hostility to each other most often due to the frustration of slow moving traffic is also becoming a serious social problem.
Strategies to Manage The Traffic Congestion in an Urban Business Area
Road users and political leaders need to be appraised what options there are for any city centre to manage traffic congestion. These management strategies could be discussed under short term and long term options. Most successful approach for a city centre would be to adopt a dual strategy so that immediate respite and permanent solutions are initiated together.
The Short-Term Strategy
This strategy has two distinct approaches. The relative merits of each and the suitability of them, for cities centre are discussed below:
Managing the Transport Supply
Managing the transportation system by adding new facilities or by making operational changes to improve system performance is the most common response by engineers and even politicians and administrators to solve congestion problems. These measures can be better understood by classifying such attempts as follows
Adding new transport infrastructure capacity
This means new roads, expressways and railways that can carry more vehicles. Even though this is almost always the ‘first-option’ suggested by road engineers and police alike, this is usually very expensive and often socially prohibitive in urban areas. However the bigger limitation in this approach is that road construction in urban areas is often considered to generate more traffic in the long term, and the idiom that ‘traffic fills whatever road space provided’ is a well-established fact.
Improving existing infrastructure for increasing capacity
A less expensive approach is to identify bottlenecks and increase capacity at these places. Signalizing an uncontrolled intersection or street widening of bottlenecks or providing for a grade-separated intersection would fall within this category. However many such attempt are also unlikely to solve traffic problemsin the long term, as these bottlenecks often control the flow of traffic beyond them and when they are eased, the problem shifts further down stream- a problem identified as ‘migration of congestion’.
Existing infrastructure for increasing capacity
Converting existing road space for high occupancy vehicles either by introducing bus lanes or providing bus ways. In some cities, entire roads have also been converted to pedestrian only streets. Removal of on-street parking is another successful method used especially in the peak period in the peak direction. This is a successful approach increasingly used in cities throughout the world, that have correctly identified that carrying more people in to a city is more important than merely allowing for more vehicles to come.
Operational Improvements to existing infrastructure to increase capacity
These include operational changes to increase the capacity of a transport system. These measures include introducing reversible lanes during peak periods. The middle lane can be made into a reversible lane, with the outer lane in the peak period turned in to a bus lane); introducing a right-turn phase in a traffic signal, ensuring better police enforcement, one-way systems that reduce traffic conflicts and expanding the public transport network are some common approaches.
The use of Information Technology has also allowed the Roads for Intelligent Transport Systems where incident detection programs, motorist information systems, and towing/enforcement efforts that can be used to minimize the effects of accidents and other non-recurring incidents and increase the capacity and reliability of the network.
Solving traffic congestion in the long-term however requires even wider strategies and policies. These can be identified in to four categories. These are also discussed in brief
A land-use strategy compatible with transport capacity
Provision of a good case study on
Furthermore, it proposes to develop the Colombo City as mixed high-density land use and to facilitate the planned formation of six satellite city centres. The proposed outer ring road in this case is intended to connect these satellite cities while simultaneously providing for an orbital route around Colombo and its suburbs for inter-regional traffic.
A Vehicle Ownership strategy compatible with road capacity
Vehicle ownership is associated with increase in incomes. It is also represents an important feature of choice of travel. Increases in vehicle ownership however, requires more road space, parking space and measures to control air pollution etc. Therefore, to properly plan the land use in the CMR or in any city, the levels of vehicle ownership that can be sustained therein has to be understood. The present rates of vehicle ownership in Sri Lanka, is around 74 vehicles per 1000 persons.
This increases to 97 per 1000 in the CMR. In Colombo District, this increases further to 141 per 1000. In Colombo City, this is even higher at 262 per 1000. The fact that within most parts of Colombo City and also in many parts of the Colombo District, traffic congestion is a regular feature indicates quite clearly that the present level of vehicle ownership therein, cannot be sustained. This as described before, is because the demand that these vehicles generate cannot be matched by the provision of increased road space. This means that the saturation levels for the present transport infrastructure appears to have been reached in these areas
A strategy for public transport compatible with population density
It is was shown earlier that public transport becomes a necessary and appropriate mode of travel when population density is high and density of roads is low at the same time. In such a scenario when incomes increase, it is public transport that can provide sustainable transport. Therefore it is evident that the backbone of an efficient and sustainable transport system in the CMR would essentially center around a good public transport system. Particularly for travel within the CMC and on the commuter arteries.
Such a strategy would require the following policy initiatives, projects and programs to give priority for public transport use and to restrain private vehicle use- a two pronged approach that has been successfully used in many cities throughout the world (e.g. Singapore, Tokyo, most European Cities).
- Implement a Parking Policy where parking spaces are restricted & where parking fees are increased in keeping with the demand for the limited spaces.
- Implement an electronic tolling system for the roads within the CMC at peak periods so that inefficient use of road space by low occupancy vehicles during peak periods could be discouraged by a toll.
- Encourage the operation of road and rail based park and ride systems.
- Divert port-based freight traffic from road to rail. • Set up regional distribution centres for agricultural produce to minimise travel related to internal trade.
Culled from Research Gate Website | Urban Traffic Congestion: The Problem & Solutions
Highway development most direct effect on ecosystems is the destruction of a natural habitat through its “conversion” to a transportation land use or “right-of-way”. Although natural vegetation may be preserved within the right-of-way, the original natural characteristics of the land are eliminated within the paved area and adjacent roadsides. The clearing of vegetation (trees, shrubs, grasses) and accompanying leveling operations (that destroy the original topography and soil profile) are the principal changes.
In some cases, the natural vegetation may be replanted while in others different species are planted and the habitat values modified. In wetland environments, road construction may need filling and draining operations that destroy wetland habitats. In aquatic environments, flow alteration (via damming or channelization) may reduce the habitat. Dredging, filling, and draining required by road construction also destroy aquatic habitat.
Impact and Effect of Highway Development
Highway development rarely eliminates entire habitat types, but instead destroys part of a habitat, leaving other areas intact. In most instances, this local habitat destruction is better thought of as habitat fragmentation. Such fragmentation is the principal cause of the loss of “area-sensitive” species and is considered the most serious threat to biological diversity.
Effect of highway development always leads to degradation of the habitat. Degradation of habitats specifically refers to a decrease in the health or ecological integrity of the “intact” habitat. In the case of highway development, this degradation is closely associated with fragmentation and what many researchers call the “edge effect”. This edge effect can be viewed as a reduction in habitat integrity at the boundary of a highway corridor caused by disturbance, contamination, or other degrading factors that extend into the natural habitat.
In addition to direct toxicity and behavioral effects on resident organisms, this degradation includes the alteration of natural processes such as water flow, fire regime, and species interactions. Biological invaders are a particular problem along roadway corridors that can seriously degrade natural systems by modifying species interactions.
Loss of Natural Resources due to Highway Development
Forest: Roads running through forest area and plantations may be the cause of the destruction of trees in the forest and alteration of the ecology of the forest.
Fisheries: Roads prevent longitudinal and lateral migration of fishes in the floodplain. Obstruct movement of fishes onto natural feeding and breeding grounds in the floodplain.
Wetland and Wetland Habitat: The road may encroach wetlands which may alter the ecology of wetlands and may cause the destruction of wetland habitat.
Erosion and Siltation: Causes erosion during flood and siltation in the downstream.
Drainage Congestion /Water logging: Roads interfere with cross drainage and can cause flooding or drainage congestion in adjacent areas during periods of high precipitation. May cause crop damage, water pollution and breeding of mosquitoes.
Regional Hydrology/Flooding: Roads constructed across floodplains perpendicular to the direction of water flow cause backwater effect and increase duration, frequency and the extent of flooding in the upstream.
Obstruction to Wastewater flow: Roads may obstruct the drainage of sewage and industrial wastewater loading to the serious pollution problem.
Loss of Agricultural Lands: Construction of any road is associated with the loss of agricultural lands. Scattered borrow pits, unauthorized growth around road, erosion result in the marred landscape.
Culled from Planning Tank | Impact and effect of developing roads and highways