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Conflicts Resolution and Urban Development

Urban Development takes many forms and it can share perspectives and practices with urban design. Several methods have been adopted by various countries in trying to tame the raving menace of social conflicts in their urban areas, ethnic and religious conflict is the most prominent form of conflicts in the urban areas.

Due to this, more state and local governments have been created in many countries, but it has not apparently solved the problem of these conflicts (ethnic and religious).

Constitutional and statutory provisions have been made but these social conflicts (ethnic and religious) issues still persist and pose serious challenges to the public.

Conflict is characterised by emotionalised and violent opposition in which the major concern is to overcome the opponent as a means of securing a goal or reward, it is a direct and openly antagonistic struggle of persons or groups for the same object. The aim of conflicts is the defeat, subjugation, or annihilation of the other person as a means of obtaining the goal.

Conflict is affected by the nature of the group and its particular culture. The object of conflict maybe property, power and status, freedom of action and thought, or any other desired value.

When economic interest looms large and there are many people or groups striving for material gain and power, conflict of economic interest may supplement the competitive process.

Various conflicts and crises have led to so many lives being lost, women have lost their husbands in conflicts, the husband lost their wives as a result of the conflict. Husbands and wives have lost their children as a result of conflicts. Entire villages and communities have been internally displaced and communities rendered desolate as a result of ethnic and religious strife.

The Forces that are Shaping the Urban Development

There are two major forces shaping the development of any city in the world. One is the Centrifugal (movement away from the city centre) in nature while the other is Centripetal (movement towards the city centre) force.

The factors that join the latter force dominate the development of most of the developing world cities while the Centrifugal forces are often associated with cities of the developed world.

In most cases, the two forces may work in the urban system of any nation. This is because while Centrifugal force is operating in a city, it may be centrifugal in another. On another note, both forces may be effective in a city as one area may repel development while others may encourage it.

Urban development will lead to the migration of members of different cultural groups into another culture, and this will lead to them bringing in a culture different from the place they migrated to and values which will condole ways of behaviour that will clash with the norms and values of the receiving culture and therefore, this might lead to various conflicts, since people will be regarded as illegal personalities in their area.

Social Conflicts Types

Culture Conflicts: These can arise because of the interpenetration of rules based on the social attitude of groups towards the various ways in which a person might act under certain circumstances (CONDUCT NORMS). Conflicts of culture when the norms of one culture are migrated or come in contact with those of another.

Differential Conflicts: This is derived from the theory of culture concept in 1939 that said that isolation of or cultural conflict is another part of the group so that its members do not appreciate the value or appreciate its less highly and so tend to endanger it, and a pugnacious resort to a coercion decently applied by those who appreciate the value to those who disregard the value.

Normative Conflict: This term is only to distinguish between the two kinds of culture conflict i.e. the conflict between legal and other norms that arise through the societal growth process and to restrict the term cultural conflict to conflicts arising through the migration of cultural codes.

Suggested ways of finding a resolution to Social Conflicts

Reduction of Social Conflicts: Each side in a conflict assumes that its goals are correct. This sense of rightness permits people to engage in behaviour that might not be acceptable in other situation, because societal and personal conflict can disrupt social bonds.

Ways of reducing Social Conflicts

conflict management in public sector - Conflicts Resolution and Urban Development

Cooptation: This occurs when the ideas of the opposition filter into the mainstream so that there is no longer a need for confrontation.

Meditation: Meditation is the use of third-party to resolve issues, often occurs in Labour Management conflict within the small group and more recently, in divorce mediation.

Ritualised released of hostility: This is used in some societies and groups to contain conflicts. An anthropologist has reported ritualised neighbouring societies. The hostility is real, but its expression is carefully controlled to keep both lives and reputations.

Regional conflicts in America are often displaced onto athletic teams. North-South football games, for example, become an occasion for waving the Confederate flag or singing the Battle Hymn of the republic.

Termination of Social Conflicts: After social conflicts have been minimised, one can then go further in the last termination of the conflicts. Termination of social conflicts is a social process dependent upon, but not directly deductive from its pursuits. This fermentation belongs neither to war nor to peace. Just as a bridge is different from either bank it connects.

To be sure, the outcome of a conflict is related to the goals of the antagonists and to the means by which it is fought, its duration and intensely will depend on goals and available resources plus the time and effort required to achieve a decision.

But the resolution of the conflict, that is agreement about what makes up a true decision highlights some factors, which are not deducible from its pursuit and must hence be studied separately.

For all except absolute conflict, resolution involves a reciprocal activity and cannot be understood simply as a unilateral imposition of the will of the stronger on the weaker. Therefore, contrary to what common sense might suggest not only the potential victor but also the potential vanquished makes crucial contributions to the resolution.

According to a military man

“war is pressed by the victor, but the piece is made by the vanquished to take the vanquished point of view until the vanquished quits, the war goes on.”

If both victor and vanquished are to make a contribution to the resolution of their conflict, they must arrive at some agreement. In order to end a conflict, the parties must agree upon rules and norms allowing them to assess their respective power position in the struggle.

Their common interest leads them to accept rules which enhance their mutual dependence on the very pursuit of their antagonistic goals. The parties to the social conflicts may be willing to cease the battle when they recognised that their aims cannot be arraigned or they can be attained only at a price which they are not willing to pay, or, more generally, than the making of peace.

Individuals and groups should institute a model in which they will be modifying interest groups, unification and organisation will lead to resolving divergent dualism.

Doing this will be a way of achieving some kind of unity; even if it will be through the annihilation of one of the conflicting parties. The challenges before the public understand the origin and dimension of these social conflicts harness their positive aspects and find ways of containing their destructive tendencies.

Top 10 Tourist Attraction Places to Visit in the U.S.A

Travelling inside the US or to the United State of America can offer you so many tourist attraction choices that you are sure to feel overwhelmed. This country has a variety of attractions and it is hard to make a list of the best travel destinations here.

When you find the latest HomeAway coupon, you can book condos, vacation apartments, cabins and beach houses for an unforgettable holiday experience. Here are some of the tourist attraction places in the US that should be on your bucket list; so, use coupons to get yourself the best holidays deals when you book accommodation in these destinations:

New York City

NYC is obviously the biggest draw for people travelling to the US, mainly because of its sightseeing attractions like the Times Square, the Empire State Building and the Statue of Liberty.

The parks and greenery, the skyline views, the Broadway and Theater District, the Metropolitan Museum of Art and the Whitney Museum of American Art, the shops on Fifth Avenue, the Rockefeller Center and the Central Park, are only some of the attractions that you cannot afford to miss.


Chicago comes second to NYC in popularity and it is the hub in the mid-west. Its museums, shopping destinations, skyline and activities are almost as attractive as what New York has to offer.

Chicago is also home to many of the country’s most significant buildings and you can get an excellent view of these as you sail down the river.

Los Angeles

Los Angeles has to be on your must-travel list because of its natural charm and Hollywood connection. The thought of bumping into big movie stars and celebrities, coupled with the serene beauty of the palm-tree laden beaches can be a great hit with tourists.

Los Angeles - Top 10 Tourist Attraction Places to Visit in the U.S.A

You can consider booking a stay at the top-notch hotels along the Malibu Beach or the Santa Monica Boulevard. The Beverly Hills, Rodeo Drive and Venice Beach are some of this city’s top-rated tourist haunts.

Washington DC

Being the capital of the US, this city is obviously one of the most popular travel destinations for tourists. It has a huge collection of monuments and museums for keen visitors.

For the lovers of history, Washington can be a treat as there are plenty of historically famous sites like Ford’s Theater, Mount Vernon, the White House, and the Capitol, and places of interest like the Smithsonian Museum, the National Museum of American History, the Lincoln Memorial, the Washington Monument, etc.

San Francisco

The Golden Gate Bridge is one of its most famous attractions but the legendary city is also popular for Chinatown, Haight-Ashbury, Napa Valley, Sonoma County, and of course, the massive tech campuses at Silicon Valley.

Las Vegas

Las Vegas - Top 10 Tourist Attraction Places to Visit in the U.S.A

You will find this popular tourist place frequented mostly by people who love to gamble at casinos. Las Vegas is known for its high-end stores, top-notch restaurants, museums, blockbuster shows and live concerts on The Strip.

New Orleans

This place is known for its French connection, festivities, and laissez-faire feel that makes it rather unique and distinct from other popular American cities. Whether it is the Mardi Gras or Jazz Fest, this city has its own charm for tourists. The French Quarter is well known for its legendary alleys and restaurants.

Grand Canyon

Grand Canyon - Top 10 Tourist Attraction Places to Visit in the U.S.A

This is by far one of the must-see destinations in the US that millions of tourists keep travelling to each year. You can even travel to this destination either from Phoenix or Las Vegas on a day trip.


This is one of the best beach destinations, located in Oahu, a breathtaking Hawaiian island, in the US. It is in the suburbs of Honolulu, popular for its sandy beaches lined with extravagant hotels, and highly popular amongst surfers.


Undoubtedly Florida’s hot spot, this city is more than a beaching paradise. You can experience the Cuban vibe here in Little Havana; the 30s feel in the Art Deco District, witness a parade of convertibles on the Ocean Drive and enjoy the South Beach summers.

7 Profoundly Beautiful Places to Visit in Vagamon for a Once-in-a-Lifetime Trip

A small but incredibly scenic hill station in Kerala, Vagamon is a paradise for nature lovers. There are countless picturesque places to visit in Vagamon that will make you want to extend your trip to this sleepy town.

This quiet and once-forgotten quaint hill station is now the centre of bustling tourist activity. Just look at some of the most breathtaking Vagamon tourist places images online and you’ll understand why!

However, first-time visitors may be confused about what kind of Vagamon places to watch and explore first. Not to worry. We’ve compiled a fabulous list of the absolutely best and most beautiful places to visit in Vagamon just for you. Scroll through it now and decide where you’d like to begin your Vagamon exploration.

Top Vagamon Tourist Places Not to Miss

While you may have heard of fantastic places in Kerala such as Alleppey, Munnar, Thekkady, and more, Vagamon may sound fairly new. Let us assure you that there are countless awesome places to visit in Vagamon as well.

However, instead of making a hurried trip to the hill station on last minute flights, take time out to chart a detailed Vagamon trip plan. Check out the best Vagamon tourist places listed below and decide which ones to include in your itinerary.

Vagamon Lake

Bordered by spectacular hills clothed in lush greenery, Vagamon Lake is among the most amazing places to visit in the region. Among the best places to visit in Vagamon for families, couples, and solo travellers alike.

Vagamon Lake offers fun activities such as boating, swimming, rowing, and others. You can also simply sit by the tranquil lake and enjoy the breathtaking surrounding scenery.

Barren Hills

Although the name Barren Hills Vagamon does not inspire much excitement, this is among the most beautiful places to visit in Vagamon. To experience the different seasons of Kerala, this is the ideal place to be.

According to season, the rolling hills change colour from lush green to brown and then turn bare. It’s the ideal picnic spot for seekers of back-to-nature experiences.

Vagamon Pine Forest

Of all spectacular Vagamon tourist places images, the majestic Vagamon pine forest stands out. Originally a man-made attraction from the British era, the woods have spread across quite a bit.

Forest lovers will enjoy strolling the pathways of this much sought-after movie shooting spot. Standing tall overlooking the charismatic valley, this is among the greatest tourist attractions in Vagamon.

Thangal Para

Primarily a pilgrim spot, Thangal Para is among the best viewpoints and top places to visit in Vagamon. As the name suggests, Thangal Para is a gigantic spherical rock resting atop the edge of a steep cliff, a place that was once inhabited by the revered Sufi saint Hazrat Sheikh Fariduddin Baba. Besides its spiritual significance, the place is also popular for being a fantastic viewpoint.

Marmala Waterfall

This is among the best and most beautiful places to visit in Vagamon for ardent waterfall lovers. Untouched and pristine, Marmala Waterfall is nestled comfortably amid lush greenery.

Until recently, this was an obscure spot as it falls within an officially private property. It’s a great picnic spot for families or for couples to spend some quiet, quality time together.

Idukki Dam

Stretched across the stunning Periyar River, this fantastic geometric marvel is among the top tourist places to visit in Vagamon. If you’re an architecture enthusiast, you will appreciate the delicate-cum-sturdy and unique design of Idukki Dam.

It overlooks what can only be described as an artist’s imagination! Don’t forget to take your camera along when you visit this fabulous attraction!

Mundayakam Ghat

You will need to make your way across a rocky, inconvenient path to reach Mundayakam Ghat, one of the best places to visit in Vagamon. However, once you reach, you will see why it was worth the effort. Bluish-green hills with the backdrop of hazy grey skies – that is exactly how this spectacular place looks most days. It’s the ideal place to enjoy majestic sunset and sunrise views.

Best Time to Visit Vagamon

Places to visit in Vagamon - 7 Profoundly Beautiful Places to Visit in Vagamon for a Once-in-a-Lifetime Trip

Since it is located at a high altitude, Vagamon experiences pleasant weather all year round. However, it is not advisable to book business class flights for a trip to Vagamon during the rainy season as it can hamper sightseeing plans.

Thereby, the best time to visit Vagamon tourist places is during the dry winter and summer months. You can enjoy paragliding and elephant rides during summer while winters are the best time for trekking and tea plantation tours.

How to Reach Vagamon

International travellers can book cheap flights to Cochin International Airport (COK), the nearest one to Vagamon. From Kochi Airport, you can hire a cab or take a taxi to reach and explore the fabulous places to visit in Vagamon. This stunning hill station can also be reached via regular trains and buses from major cities in Kerala and the rest of India.

Best Vacation Places in the World to Consider for Visitation

A vacation is one way to take time off work and reflect on your goals for the year, season, or even quarter. It’s a time to evaluate side by side your goals, the progress made as well as the challenges you have faced. Having a vacation far away from home is especially recommended because it puts your mental and entire physique in a reflection mode.

You forget work (well sometimes), forget your usual environmental conditions that may or may not favour creative thinking and you have enough space to fire your thoughts on what truly matters to you this can be your job, career, family, business etc.

While this is a moment of reflection and self-realization, it is also a period set aside to properly enjoy one’s self devoid of the little distractions that badge into our daily joy moments.

Sadly, not a lot of people observe vacations

The reasons are enormous, ranging from no money, no time, no preparation, lots of work at the office, to trivial reasons like “I don’t know where to visit.” Though some of these reasons are very valid, howbeit, with proper planning, anyone can achieve anything.

Interestingly, some of the excuses have been resolved in this post; like where to visit and how to get funds for the trip. More on how to get the funds needed for your vacation later, but first, let us look at 5 awesome places you should consider if you are planning a vacation anytime this year.

The Adirondacks, New York

The Adirondacks New York - Best Vacation Places in the World to Consider for Visitation

Let’s start from America, The Adirondacks is one of America’s first vacation destinations, Built-in 1927. New York’s Adirondack Mountain region has been luring travellers since the late 19th century with clear lakes, pure air, and 46 high peaks to climb.

You can still visit in classic style. Reopened last year after a respectful renovation that brings a touch of urban grandeur to the charming town of Saranac Lake, this is should definitely make your A-list of places to go this year.

Rabat, Morocco

Rabat Morocco - Best Vacation Places in the World to Consider for Visitation

Rabat, located on the Moroccan coast, is the country’s capital and a top tourist destination CNN named it one of the top travel destinations of 2013, and since then it has even improved the more.

Morocco offers so many different kinds of experiences. You could do a camel trek in the Sahara Desert and sleep under the stars, you could have tea with nomadic Berbers to learn about their lifestyle.

To take your fun to the next level, you could also have a walk around the Djemaa el Fna square (probably the largest market square in Africa) in the evening when musicians, dancers, and storytellers come out.”

Olumo Rock, Nigeria

Olumo Rock Ogun Nigeria - Best Vacation Places in the World to Consider for Visitation

Looking for something local? Olumo Rock is your destination. Hike through to the top of the impressive rock formation of Olumo Rock and discover the history and mysteries of the rocks that served as a refuge during the inter-tribal wars.

You can also enjoy an amazing aerial view of the city of Abeokuta from the top of the rocks. Oh, yes you can visit the Cathedral Church of St Peter, the first church in Nigeria. All these in one visit, it’s definitely a place to go.

Aswan, Egypt

Aswan Egypt - Best Vacation Places in the World to Consider for Visitation

Egypt, home of the ancient Pharaohs. Egypt is a dazzling destination of temples and tombs that wow all who visit. With vast tracts of desert, superb scuba diving, and the famed Nile River, there’s something for everyone.

If you are looking for a mix of experience in activities ranging from culture to adventure and relaxation, then Egypt is your destination. There’s so much in stock for travellers here.

Egypt’s most tranquil town is Aswan, set upon the winding curves of the Nile. Backed by orange-hued dunes, this is the perfect place to stop and unwind for a few days and soak up the chilled-out atmosphere.

Take the river ferry across to Elephantine Island and stroll the colourful streets of the Nubian villages. Ride a camel to the desert monastery of St. Simeon on the East Bank. Or just drink endless cups of tea on one of the riverboat restaurants, while watching the lateen-sailed feluccas drift past.

Lamu, Kenya

Lamu Kenya - Best Vacation Places in the World to Consider for Visitation

Kenya is definitely one of the places you should add to your consideration list, especially if you are looking at having an African experience. Lamu especially is a place that would interest you.

Lamu is nestled in the surrounding villages and it also has islands that around it. It has an irresistible appeal that visitors love. The Locals are friendly, the weather is moderate, it’s indeed a place to go when you need a wow African experience.

So now that we have taken care of the inspiration to travel, I believe you are now geared up to go for that vacation

But there’s one more crucial thing about Vacation; Money

Money is the number one reason why a lot of people don’t travel for vacations, for the most part, it is not like there is no money available to them, they just don’t have the information on where to get this money.

Most people would immediately turn to their family and friends to ask for financial aid for their vacation. The problem with this approach is that your family and friends would immediately classify you as biting more than you can chew, and even if they have the money, they would hesitate in giving it to you.

Another approach people often take is to look at their savings with the hope that it will be huge enough to finance the vacation and still remain fat.

That approach also is not healthy because money is never enough, and when you think of starting your savings all over again, you might as well just forfeit the trip. Before you know it, years have gone past and you are still there trying to save enough money.

A very successful and smart way of getting money to finance your vacation is to approach a financial institution and request financial support to the tune of your vacation expense, with a view to repaying monthly over a period of time.

This way, you are not breaking your savings account, you are not being shamed by family and friends, and you are not under pressure to repay in a very short term. There are several financial institutions that provide such loans. Page Financials has proven to be leading this space in Nigeria. They provide loans to salary earners in Lagos and Ibadan, to the tune of between ₦200k and ₦5M.

The loan is disbursed within 3 hours upon verification of applicant’s data

Here’s the fun part, repayment is super convenient. You re-pay gradually between 3 to 12 months as you please. Everything happens automatically online so you don’t even need to see anyone face to face. From the point of application up to the point of repayment, everything is handled by their intelligent system.

However, if you need to speak with their support team, they are available 24Hours every day via phone (016317243), email (customer@pagefinancials.com), webchat on the website (pagefinancials.com) and in-app chat on the Page Mobile App.

Now that you have the information, what you do with it is really what will determine if you are going to make that next holiday trip or if you will procrastinate it like all the others. Call 016317243 to speak with a financial adviser to help you decide if you qualify for the loan.

Benefits of Alternative and Green Energy Sources Usage

There are many sources of energy that can be used people especially those who are searching for a large amount of energy without the risk of spending a huge amount of money on other resources. These ideas were not only made for those who are trying to preserve their energy expenses but also for those individuals who are trying to make use of alternative energy sources that are environmentally friendly. The use of green energy is an idea that has been in use for a longer time, but many people learned to accept this suggestion after they have realized the damages done by the current sources that they are using.

Aside from that, there are lots of people who are promoting the use of renewable energy to make sure that they are not wasting anything whenever they are using power for their everyday lives. The use of alternative and green energy sources is sure to be very beneficial since people will be able to save the environment from the harmful effects emitted by the current power sources that are used in large companies. Aside from that, the use of such energy source allows people to have a source that will not affect the natural flow of the environment. Though the installation of such sources may take time and a large amount of money, the entire expenses and time allotted are sure to be as worthy as how you want it to be.

Alternative and green energy sources that are being used by big companies and even certain homeowners are a solar panel

Green Energy Sources - Benefits of Alternative and Green Energy Sources Usage

Through solar energy, people have been able to get enough power needed for their everyday use and at the same time, preventing the production of harmful chemicals released in the air. With the help of solar tech, people are assured that they can make use of the sun in powering and running their appliances just like it should normally. Although there are people who tend to disregard the use of alternative energy and just settle with the source that they already have, there are still more advocates who promote the use of such resources.

Aside from solar sources, there are lots of other alternative and green energy sources that are used in different parts of the world. Some of these are Geothermal Energy, Wind Power, and Hydropower. These are some of the most used and popular types of sources providing sufficient power and energy that can run various appliances and other gadgets at home or at workplaces.

Geothermal Energy

This is the heat from the Earth that is clean and sustainable. Resources of geothermal energy range from the shallow ground to hot water and hot rock found a few miles beneath the Earth’s surface, and down even deeper to the extremely high temperatures of molten rock called magma. Geothermal heat pumps can tap into this resource to heat and cool buildings. A geothermal heat pump system consists of a heat pump, an air delivery system (ductwork), and a heat exchanger-a system of pipes buried in the shallow ground near the building. In the winter, the heat pump removes heat from the heat exchanger and pumps it into the indoor air delivery system.

In the summer, the process is reversed, and the heat pump moves heat from the indoor air into the heat exchanger. The heat removed from the indoor air during the summer can also be used to provide a free source of hot water. Some geothermal power plants use the steam from a reservoir to power a turbine/generator, while others use the hot water to boil a working fluid that vaporizes and then turns a turbine. Hot water near the surface of Earth can be used directly for heat. Direct-use applications include heating buildings, growing plants in greenhouses, drying crops, heating water at fish farms, and several industrial processes such as pasteurizing milk. Read more

Wind Power

This is the use of air flow through wind turbines to provide the mechanical power to turn electric generators and traditionally to do other work, like milling or pumping. Wind power, as an alternative to burning fossil fuels, is plentiful, renewable, widely distributed, clean, produces no greenhouse gas emissions during operation, consumes no water, and uses little land. Wind power gives variable power, which is very consistent from year to year but has significant variation over shorter time scales. It is therefore used in conjunction with other electric power sources or batteries to give a reliable supply.

As the proportion of wind power in a region increases, a need to upgrade the grid and a lowered ability to supplant conventional production can occur. Power-management techniques such as having excess capacity, geographically distributed turbines, dispatchable sources, sufficient hydroelectric power, exporting and importing power to neighbouring areas, energy storage, or reducing demand when wind production is low, can in many cases overcome these problems. Read more


This is the conversion of energy from flowing water into electricity. It is considered a renewable energy source because the water cycle is constantly renewed by the sun. Modern hydro plants produce electricity using turbines and generators, where mechanical energy is created when moving water spins rotors on a turbine. This turbine is connected to an electromagnetic generator, which produces electricity when the turbine spins. Hydropower is the largest contributor of all renewable energy sources and accounts for 6.7% of worldwide electricity production. Further growth of this mature technology may be possible, though many countries have already developed cost-effective sites.

It is an abundant, low-cost source of power (where applicable), despite high upfront building costs. It is also a flexible and reliable source of electricity compared to other renewable options, as it may be stored for use at a later time. There are many concerns with hydropower, particularly large dam facilities. Damming a river has a significant impact on the regional ecosystem, by flooding upstream landscapes, disrupting habitats for wildlife, blocking fish passages, and often displacing local communities. Read more

There may be individuals who find the use of Bioenergy a bit new, but as soon as they understand the benefits of such sources, they just settle with the idea. Just like the use of Wind Energy. People are not only able to get enough power for their homes or offices but at the same time, they are also provided with the refreshing benefits of air. People just have to make sure that they contact the right company for the installation for any of the alternative and green energy sources to maximize the benefits that they can get from it.

Culled from Amazine |

Slums and Urban Blight Problems in Developing Countries

The housing of different quality has been identified in various terms in writing when dealing with urban housing, Such terms include squatter settlements or shanty town, urban blight, and slums. The term slum is regularly used with reference to a social group as much as to a particular section of the city by Northam in 1975, where he described slum as where disordered family life, prostitution, social pathologies of alcoholism, and the likes are a common experience. Another scholar said slum is the product of human ways of life that developed into certain kind of activities.

The word slum was first used in England in 1820s during the industrial revolutions which were originated from the English old proclaimed word “Slump” which literally means “Wet Wire”. During that period, slums were said to start by the working class accommodations which were developed next to the factories located by the canals. Basically, there appear to be differences between slum and urban blight;

Slums in nigeria  - Slums and Urban Blight Problems in Developing Countries

The slum has both physical and social connotation which can be regarded as a particular social group occupying a discrete housing setting while urban blight majorly concerned with the functional depreciation of the real properties of the area involved. This can be extended beyond residential to the non-residential area as both areas are experiencing a reduction of functional attributes and value.

Problems of Slums to Developing Countries

Slums can be described both in physical and social connotations. The physical terms of the slums area are characterized by overcrowding, congested housing, and deficient physical amenities. A slum is quoted by Weitz in 1973 to consist dwellings of extremely flimsy construction that are lacking basic urban services like potable water supply and sewers without the benefits of legal land tenure.

1n 1977, Mabogunje also characterized slum as an area of squalid environment, crammed up houses, severe shortage of water, non-availability of drainage channels, inadequate stormwater discharged facilities. The surrounding area of slums is identified to be suffering from a high density of population and lack open space where access to normal community facilities such as health and education are difficult to access.

The economic situation of a slum environment has been described by various researchers especially in developing countries as to where the majority of the inhabitants are suffering from abject poverty. Slum environments have been identified as places of abode for urban poor. Crime has been identified as major problems of slum areas in developing countries like murder, grievous harm, assault, raping, and robbery. Slums are places where girls and women are frequently reduced to prostitution which leads to having illegitimate children.

Unemployment has also been described as one of the major constituting factors to the problem in the slum areas. The slum dwellers have been described as poor people who migrated from other town and villages into an urban environment. Another argument is that the majority of unemployed immigrants mostly live in the slum by squatting and looking for a job in the urban area where it is too difficult to secure employment. As a result of unemployment of the slum area, the incomes of the inhabitants are as low and unstable that they are beyond the reach of conventional institutional assistance mechanisms such as public assisted low-cost housing, financial and credit mechanism.

We cannot conclude that poverty of the slum area alone produces the problem such as crime and social maladjustment, as economically deprived people cannot necessarily steal, rather, the norms permitting and sanctioning such behaviour must be found in the immediate environment and incorporated into the individuals’ life organization. The implication of all these is that slum may not be a slum, and what is not slum may be a slum. This depends on the way of life, social behaviour, and attitude of people residing in a particular area. The way of life of people would dictate their urban environment situation.

Survivors Of Forced Evictions In Nigeria’s Mega Metropolis Reviews

Survivors of forced evictions in Lagos, south-west Nigeria are homeless and devoid of livelihoods. they are the city terrible whose rights to enough and low-priced housing has been strangled by using a mega metropolis mission. These people need to return to their buildings; they need their means of livelihood again.

In 2017, Amnesty International published a document, The Human cost of a Mega metropolis: pressured Evictions of the urban terrible in Lagos Nigeria (AFR 44/7389/2017). The document documented how Lagos state authorities forcibly evicted over 30,000 residents of Otodo-Gbame group from their buildings in three pressured evictions between 9 November 2016 and 9 April 2017 and about 823 residents of Ilubirin community on 4 occasions.

All the forced evictions befell without prior consultations with affected residentsForced Evictions - Survivors Of Forced Evictions In Nigeria's Mega Metropolis Reviews

Two years after, lots of the evictees continue to be homeless and live in determined poverty. lots of them live in deplorable conditions in a number of the waterfront communities around Lagos. They had to ask residents of other waterfront communities to accommodate them, and in some instances, up to twenty people reside in a single room.

The redistribution of Otodo-Gbame residents in different waterfront communities has resulted in extended pressure on the meager supplies purchasable in these communities. Survivors of the compelled eviction who are peculiarly fishermen and fish marketers mentioned that the eviction had destroyed their livelihoods. From June 22-24 2018, Amnesty foreign’s researcher visited three waterfront communities, Ajah, Makoko, and Oreta [Ikorodu] where many of the evictees from Otodo-Gbame now searching for safeguard.

The Lagos State authorities have failed to supply residents of Otodo-Gbame with choice housing and/or compensation for the loss and/or hurt to property led to by way of the compelled evictions. they’ve also now not provided any relief or rehabilitation for those who lost their livelihoods. since evictees are left homeless, the lands they previously occupied is being developed into luxury real estate jointly owned via the state government and a personal business.Otodo Gbame Forced Evictions - Survivors Of Forced Evictions In Nigeria's Mega Metropolis Reviews

The authorities have additionally didn’t provoke unbiased investigations into the pressured evictions and the extreme use drive by members of the police and military. heaps of families at the moment are separated and greater than a hundred toddlers had been forced to stop their schooling.

When Amnesty overseas spoke to the forcibly evicted households, they were unequivocal in their demands – they want their buildings and ability of livelihoods back.

Food Security in Cuba through Agricultural Revolution

Food security is a condition where people have physical, social and economic access to sufficient and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. Food security can also be seen as the right of each people to outline their personal guidelines about agriculture, to give protection to and adjust their countrywide agricultural construction and markets with the goal of sustainable development, to make a decision to what extent they want to be self-satisfactory in meals, and to evade their home markets from being inundated with sponsored items from different nations.

Agricultural revolution in Cuba has ignited the imaginations of people in every single place in the area. Cuba’s model serves as a basis for self-sufficiency, resistance to neocolonialist building projects, innovations in agroecology, options to monoculture, and a more environmentally sustainable society. as a substitute of turning towards austerity measures and making concessions to gigantic overseas powers all through a severe financial downturn.

Cubans reorganized meals creation and labored to gain food security as a method of subsistence, environmental coverage, and countrywide securityFood Security in Cuba - Food Security in Cuba through  Agricultural Revolution

These efforts were born of economic necessity, they are magnificent as they have been developed in opposition to a company global meals regime. The world bank and international monetary Fund imposed structural adjustment classes and free alternate agreements on the so-called third world. These guidelines expanded the impact of firm enterprises, equivalent to Monsanto and Cargill, in global meals creation. They also inspired giant-scale monocultures, whereby meals creation is really good by means of the vicinity for foreign trade.

These guidelines threatened the countrywide food security of nations in several interrelated methods

– Economically susceptible countries are subject to the vagaries of the international market, fluctuating meals costs, and closely subsidized produce from the world North that undermines the skill of the former to compete.
– In a for-income financial gadget, definite vegetation, like sugarcane, potato, and corn, are planted to supply biofuels, primarily ethanol, as an alternative to food for terrible populations. rich countries that may afford to buy vegetation for biofuels inflate market expenditures for food, and when droughts or floods ruin whole harvests, then scarce food nonetheless goes to the optimum bidder.

– Nations that concentrate on cash vegetation for export ought to import food, increasing average insecurity, and dependency on alternate networks. These countries are greater prone to adjustments in the prices of petroleum because it influences expenses associated with transportation, fertilizers, pesticides, and the ordinary rate of food. In countries with better per capita incomes, increasing meals fees are an annoyance for a lot of people but not always existence threatening.

In international locations with high quotes of poverty, rate raises can be devastating. all the above complications converged throughout the 2007–2008 food disaster that resulted in riots in Egypt, Haiti, Indonesia, Mexico, and Bangladesh, just to name a few. Americans global have suffered from these policies and have fought lower back. Some international locations have taken to task organizations like Monsanto, as in the case of India’s response to genetically modified eggplant, which involved a boycott of Monsanto’s items and calls for the eradication of genetically modified meals.

There are burgeoning local meals movements, even in the united states, that regardless of many challenges try and produce food outdoor the latest enormous-scale agricultural paradigm. There are also overseas movements that are working to alternate agricultural policies and practices. as an instance, La Vía Campesina is an international stream comprised of peasants, small-scale farmers, and their allies.

Their fundamental desires are to cease neoliberal guidelines that promote oligopolistic corporate control over agriculture and to promote food security

Alongside these movements, Cuba has made outstanding strides towards setting up an equipment of food security. one among their most wonderful tasks in this regard is their institutionalized and organized effort to extend agroecological practices, or a gadget of agriculture it is in keeping with ecological principles and environmental concerns. Cuba has mostly transformed meals construction to pursuing a greater sustainable direction.

These practices are not limited to the geographical region. Cuba is the identified leader of city agriculture. As Koont highlights, the Cuban countrywide community for city Agriculture defines urban agriculture because the creation of meals in the urban and peri-city perimeter, the usage of intensive methods, paying attention to the human-crop-animal-ambiance interrelationships, and taking skills of the city infrastructure with its sturdy labor force.

This effects in the varied construction of vegetation and animals during the year, in keeping with sustainable practices which let the recycling of waste materials (29). In 2007, urban agriculture comprised approximately 14.6 percent of agriculture in Cuba. almost all city agriculture is organic. Cuba’s environmental protections and agricultural improvements have received appreciable cognizance. The 2006 Sustainability Index record, put together with the aid of the world wildlife Fund by using combining the United international locations.

Human construction Index and Ecological Footprint measures (or natural aid use per capita), contends that the handiest nation on this planet that resides sustainably is Cuba. The island nation is exceptionally lauded for its strides in urban meals construction. Sustainable city Agriculture in Cuba is the first e-book to take a comprehensive analyze this apply around the entire island.

Koont shows that the size of city agriculture in Cuba is that despite the fact Cuba is not absolutely food self-enough, it is the simplest example the realm has of a rustic that produces most of its meals locally, using agroecological ideas for construction. moreover, many of the meals produced are for local consumption. because of this, Cuba has probably the shortest producer-to-customer chains on earth. during this book, Koont files the staggering transformations which have taken vicinity inside this nation.

While Cuba imports the majority of its energy and protein, city agriculture has extended food safety and sovereignty in the environment of vegetable construction. In 2005, Cuba was “importing 60 % to 70 % of what it consumes [mostly so-called bulk foods] at an estimated can charge of $1.5 billion to $2 billion annually.” besides the fact that children, urban agriculture inside and around Havana money owed for 60–ninety percent of the produce consumed within the metropolis and makes use of about 87,000 acres of land.

Cubans employ a lot of types of urban agriculture, including gardens, reforestation projects, and small-scale farm animals operations. In 2010, seventy-five percent of the Cuban inhabitants lived in cities—a metropolis is defined as such if the inhabitants are in extra of 1,000 men and women. hence, city meals production is probably the most practical and productive ability to give the population with food.

These transformations didn’t materialize. Koont provides a useful overview of the historical circumstances that contributed to alterations in food security in CubFood Security - Food Security in Cuba through  Agricultural Revolution

After the 1959 revolution and the following imposition of the U.S. embargo, Cuba grew to be reliant on the Soviet Union. Cubans used huge-scale, industrial, monoculture to produce sugar, which changed into exchanged for Soviet petroleum and foreign money.

The economic system became mostly tied to high-yield sugar construction. In a vicious cycle, this classification of agriculture required importing agrochemical fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides, and oil to run heavy equipment. In 1989, 3 times greater arable land in Cuba turned into used to produce sugar for export than meals for countrywide consumption. many of the Cuban food plans got here from imported food.

When the Soviet Union collapsed in the early 1990s, Cubans and their financial system suffered drastically. Cubans now not had access to the inputs required to maintain huge-scale agriculture, given how stylish such agriculture is on oil. To make concerns worse, the end of exchange between the Soviet Bloc and Cuba resulted in a lack of access to food, which reduced Cubans’ protein intake by 30 %.

The device of agriculture that turned into in location turned into now not sustainable or geared up for self-sufficiency. Cubans consult with the following duration of aid scarcity as the particular duration in Peace Time. This duration protected shortages of food, gasoline, and medication. faced with food shortage and malnutrition, Cubans needed to revamp their food production techniques, which blanketed at the same time producing many plants in the finest method viable.

Additionally, the indispensable mission of Cuban politicians, ecologists, farmers, scientists, biologists, and farm laborers turned into to fix the ecological cycles of interdependence that significant-scale, exploitative agriculture destroyed. Despite these hardships, Cuban society was fitted to take care of the ensuing crisis, given the country’s certain commitments and agroecological projects that were already in operation. The Cuban govt and leadership labored to deliver institutional help to re-direct food construction and to enable the construction of an intensive urban agricultural task.

Governmental guidelines, after the 1959 revolution, that prioritized extending schooling, science, and know-how served as a springboard for these new agricultural projects

– The modern government-dependent businesses to discuss social issues and issues. These corporations served as supply and distribution networks for meals and facilities for analysis that examined farmers’ traditional talents, carrying on with education programs that taught agroecological practices, distribution of technological improvements, and comparison of existing programs and operations.
– The government prioritized human materials and capabilities. thus, the Cuban government invested in human capital by making schooling extra extensively purchasable and purchasable at all levels. using the organizational infrastructure and investing in the Cuban Americans made the agroecological transition viable all through the economic crisis in the early 1990s.

Koont examines how the early agroecological tasks, ahead of the particular period, served as a basis for future development and growth of the modern transformation of agriculture in Cuba. Science is publicly owned and directed towards furthering human construction, in preference to capital accumulation. Cuba had the human resources to tackle food shortage, on the grounds that they had eleven percent of the scientists in Latin America.

Scientists had been already experimenting with agroecology, with the intention to take the potential of ecological synergisms, utilizing biodiversity and biological pest management. These efforts had been concentrated on diminishing the want for inputs equivalent to synthetic fertilizers and pesticides. other initiatives included integrating animals into rotational grazing techniques with vegetation and diversifying with polycultures.

Cubans additionally began recycling sugarcane waste as cattle feed; the cows, in flip, excrete waste it really is utilized to the soil as fertilizer, thereby restoring ecological interdependence. through combining manure with worm castings, Cubans have been able to fertilize most of their plants organically without needing to import fertilizer from long distances.

Their experimentation also blanketed developing urban organopónicos, which have been developed 4 years earlier than the Soviet cave in. Organopónicos are raised beds of organic substances constrained in rectangular walls the place flowers are grown in areas with negative soil high-quality. moreover, own family plots had long existed inside urban areas.
Altogether these experiments and projects served as the basis to pursue more desirable self-sufficiency, a system of city agriculture, and a more sustainable sort of food security.

The pursuit of food security has yielded many advantages. city agriculture has accelerated meals creation, employment, environmental healing and insurance plan, and neighborhood building. perhaps essentially the most stunning strides are within the area of food protection. within the early Nineteen Nineties, during the particular duration, Cubans’ caloric intake diminished to about 1,863 calories a day. in the middle of food scarcity, Cuba ramped up food construction.

Cuba Food Security - Food Security in Cuba through  Agricultural Revolution

Between 1994 and 2006, Cubans accelerated city output by way of a thousand fold, with an annual increase price of seventy-eight p.ca year. In 2001, Cubans cultivated 18,591 hectares of urban land; in 2006, fifty-two,389 hectares had been cultivated. as a result of these efforts, the caloric intake for the population averaged three,356 calories a day in 2005. all through the economic crisis, unemployment sharply extended. youngsters, the advent of extensive city agricultural courses, which included centers of suggestions and education, offered new jobs that subsumed 7 percent of the team of workers and provided first-rate wages.

City agriculture and reforestation initiatives additionally constituted crucial features for the atmosphere. shifting meals production far from reliance on fossil fuels and petrochemicals is improved for human fitness and reduces the carbon dioxide emissions associated with food creation. urban reforestation initiatives provide sinks for air toxins and help enhance cities. at last, local construction of meals decreases meals miles.

It also requires both native producers and buyers. for this reason, group contributors get to grasp each different and are responsible for each difference in the course of the construction and consumption of food. Sustainable Urban Agriculture in Cuba is a detailed documentation of the agroecological transformation in Cuba. Koont offers a major amount of suggestions about the mechanics of urban agriculture.

He highlights the enabling factors of urban agriculture in Cuba, which are the govt’s advent of the organizational infrastructure and their funding in human capital. He additionally provides an evaluation of the outcomes from urban agriculture. The effects he discusses are good points made in food production, increased employment, environmental recovery and protection, and neighborhood constructing.

Besides that children, the majority of the publication reads like a dry technical guide or ebook to urban agriculture, something corresponding to reliable Cuban executive documents. there are lots of bulleted lists right through each chapter that outline sorts of crops grown, innovations, key points of city agriculture in Cuba, taking part agencies, assessment criteria, tons of produce in each province, software pursuits, and the lists go on.

Whereas the e-book consists of a major volume of tips about way, extent, ability, schooling, and evaluation surrounding urban agriculture in Cuba, it does little in the approach of developing a theoretical framework and totally exploring the value of Cuba’s model of urban agriculture for the realm. The introduction and the remaining chapter of the booklet are both chapters that touch on Cuba’s relevance and implications. in addition, Koont offers a minimal critical evaluation of the challenges that Cubans nevertheless face in their quest for meals sovereignty.

Regardless of these shortcomings, Koont provides a lots-needed distinctive account of the strides made in Cuban urban agriculture. Cuba’s example has clear implications for food sovereignty and safety for the rest of the area. With the true possibility of climate trade, knowledge energy crises, market fluctuations, international droughts, or other financial and environmental issues that may also drive nations to relocalize food production, this illustration can serve as a template for future food sovereignty. we can continue to learn from Cuba as they generate new technologies and improvements in organic urban agriculture into the longer term. moreover, the Cuban example serves as a testament to the advantage f

Tenants Rights Under The Nigerian Law and What You Should Know

The undue attachment of Nigerians to the land and landed property so much attention and superiority are added to the status of a landlord which has made it up for the ill-treatment the so-called landlords do meet out to their often poor tenants. Nigerian law is all-encompassing and people-welfare oriented. The law went on to offer an avalanche of rights, duties, and privileges for tenants. This article is set to outline and dwell on the details of the rights, duties, privileges, powers, and remedies open to tenants in Nigeria.

In Nigeria, a tenant is declared a lesser human being against the wishes of the constitution as many times as his/her rights are trampled on. The law will always lean in favour of a tenant and to safeguard him properly while he strives to acquire his own premises. You may be the owner of your residence while you are a tenant in your office complex. There can never be a tenant without a landlord.

These are some of the Tenants rights open in NigeriaYour Right as a Tenant Under the Nigerian Law - Tenants Rights Under The Nigerian Law and What You Should Know

Right to Sue Landlord for Trespass: A tenant has the right to sue a landlord who pays deaf ears to the provisions of the law and goes on to throw him out. The above-detailed rules are not mere academic literature rather valid and subsisting procedure for the eviction of tenants in any part of Nigeria. Once a tenant is in the occupation of premises then he has all rights over the premises and the law will not allow his landlord to trespass against such.

The court will not hesitate to slam the hammer on a landlord that throws the laws to the winds. Let a tenant seek remedy in court by consulting a lawyer. He should equally complain to the Nigerian Police of such trespass, to investigate such and prosecute the landlord for criminal trespass. All persons are equal before the law and a landlord is not in any degree a master or lord unto his tenant; not a “tenant-lord”.

Right to a Written Agreement: The law makes the writing of tenancy agreements mandatory for tenancies above three (3) years while tenancy below three can be orally or written. Generally, to be on the safe side parties are advised to put their agreements in writing even if it is for a week tenancy. The tenancy agreements are to contain in details the names of a landlord and his tenant; as parties to the tenancy agreement. The land or house to be rented out ought to be described in details; showing its location and basic features.

Watch: The Stubborn Tenant – Latest Nollywood Comedy Full Movie

In making the tenancy agreement between the landlord and the prospective tenant both parties are to execute the agreement by signing and dating it before their respective witnesses (at least one witness for each party). Post office stamp should be affixed to the agreement to enrich its probative value (make it recognised in law and acceptable in court as evidence).

Right to Issuance of receipt of Payment: Payment of rent is a vital part of tenancy albeit not proof of the existence of a tenancy. It is often one of the covenants of a tenancy agreement. Prove of payment (receipt) is needed in the calculation of a mesne profit (rent incurred by a tenant after the expiration of a valid “Notice to Quit” served on him) and even arrears of rent (rent incurred by a tenant while in a valid tenancy with his landlord). It can equally clear off any allegation of contravention of a valid rent clause (prompt payment of rent).

Receipt of payment is an acknowledgement from a landlord (or his agent) that he has received rent from a tenant. It must contain the name of the landlord and the tenant, the amount paid and the date of such payment. The property for which such payment is made, the duration that such payment will cover and the signature of the receiver must also be on the receipt.

Right to Peaceful Enjoyment of Property: The tenant pays his rent to his landlord for the landlord to grant him a peaceful and serene enjoyment of the landlord’s property within an agreed period to the exclusion of all other persons; the landlord inclusive. No tenant pays to be offered an uninhabitable apartment, dilapidated property, unsecured environment or a contentious accommodation. Once payment is made and tenancy commences the tenant has both legal and fair rights over the said property.

Right to a Valid Notice to Quit: The legislatures in consideration of our conservative Land Use Act have enacted a series of tenant-friendly Acts and laws. A tenant cannot be thrown out of his apartment unless there is strict compliance by his landlord with of relevant Recovery of Premises Law. Recovery of Premises Law provides that a valid “Notice to Quit” (Quit Notice) of a landlord’s intention to terminate/quit the tenancy of the tenant must be written and served on the tenant.

Right to a Compulsory Seven (7) Days Notice to Recover Premises: The “Seven (7) days Notice of Owner’s Intention to Recover Premises” is a notice from a landlord’s lawyer notifying a tenant upon whom a “notice to quit” had been served and same had expired; that the lawyer will after seven (7) days from the date of the service of the Notice proceed to court to recover the overhead premises on behalf of the landlord.

The Lagos Tenancy Law

A “(7) Seven days Notice of Owner’s Intention to Recover Premises” can only be served on a tenant after the expiration of a valid “Notice to Quit”. Where a seven (7) Days Notice is served before a “Notice to Quit” or during the lifespan of a “Notice to Quit”, such as invalid and goes to no issue. A seven (7) days notice is to be calculated from the day after the service of the notice on the tenant and not from the day of service. If the notice is short or less by just a day it is a good ground for the court to reject the legality of such.

Fashola Dims Hope, Says Magic Can’t Resolve Nigeria’s Electrical Energy Issues

The Minister of power, Works and Housing, Babatunde Fashola, has declared that the nation’s electricity issues cannot be solved by magic. He spoke of the issue of vigour provide within the nation is slowly being solved. Information from the ministry revealed that as of 6 AM on Wednesday, October 17, Nigeria’s complete vigour technology stood at three,729 megawatts.

The minister made the remark whereas speaking on the inauguration of the 2x100MVA, 132/33kV vigor transformers at the Ejigbo Transmission Substation, on Thursday in Lagos. Fashola pointed out the govt extended the transmission substation to serve the starting to be the population in the area, adding that the ability had been expanded from 120MVA to 300MVA.

“This substation becomes in-built 1970; the ability changed into 60MVA then; aside from the addition of an extra 60MVA, this community has grown exponentially; so, they have exceeded the installed means here,” Fashola pointed outPower sector - Fashola Dims Hope, Says Magic Can’t Resolve Nigeria’s Electrical Energy Issues

“Between that point and when President Buhari came three years in the past, some people had been there. but they’re going to come back to you; so, when they arrive again, ask them if they didn’t be aware of the place to buy transformers.

“The problem of electricity is slowly being solved, one after the other. anyone will inform you he will do magic; inform him, ‘How?’ He may still explain to you. We inherited 800 containers for power gadget left in the port for 10 years. President Buhari gave us approval, and we now have recovered 690,” Fashola stated.

On his part, the Managing Director of Transmission enterprise Nigeria (TCN), Usman Mohammed, stated the installation of the two units of 100MVA transformers at the Ejigbo Transmission Substation changed into funded by the realm financial institution throughout the company’s task administration unit.

“With the enhance within the Ejigbo substation’s means, the TCN has considerably extended bulk electrical energy attainable within the substation for the Ikeja electrical energy Distribution business to take to its customers. as a result, electricity patrons in Ejigbo, Egbe, Oke-Afa, Shasha, Ikotun, Ijegun, and Idimu town will now have more helpful vigour give from Ikeja electric powered.”

“different merits encompass relieve of some overloaded feeders in Egbe, Shasha, and Oke-Afa. additionally, the Lagos airport will now have greater load allocated to it. superior vigour supply in these areas will positively affect the socio-economic construction of the areas in certain and the economic climate at gigantic,” he talked about.